All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

In recommending intakes for vitamin D, it must be recognized that in most locations in the world in a broad band around the equator (latitudes 42°N - 42°S), the most physiologically relevant and efficient way of acquiring vitamin D is to synthesize it endogenously in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by sun (UV) light exposure.

In most situations, ~ 30 minutes of skin exposure of the arms and face to sunlight can provide all the daily vitamin D needs of the body.

Skin synthesis of vitamin D is negatively influenced by factors which may reduce the ability of the skin to provide the total needs of the individual:

  • latitude and season - both influence the amount of UV light reaching the skin;
  • ageing process - thinning of the skin reduces the efficiency of this synthetic process;
  • skin pigmentation - the presence of darker pigments in the skin interferes with the synthetic process because UV light cannot reach the appropriate layer of the skin;
  • clothing - virtually complete covering of the skin for medical, social, cultural, or religious reasons leaves insufficient skin exposed to sunlight;
  • sunscreen use - widespread and liberal use of sunscreen, though reducing skin damage by the sun deleteriously affects synthesis of vitamin D.

Because not all of these problems can be solved in all geographic locations, particularly during winter at latitudes higher than 42° where synthesis is virtually zero, it is recommended that individuals not synthesizing vitamin D should correct their vitamin D status by consuming the amounts of vitamin D. 

Recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) for vitamin D, by group, in milligrams (1/1000 g):

Infants, children, adolescents, and adults 19–50 years, pregnant and lactating women - mg a day RNI;

Adults 51–65 years - 10 mg a day RNI

Adults 65+ years - 15 mg a day RNI

Leonardo da Vinci

I have from an early age abjured the use of meat, and the time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of men.

All Known Essential Minerals

Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

Macrominerals

Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

  1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
  2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
  3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
  4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
  5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
  6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
  7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

Trace Minerals

Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

  1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
  2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
  3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
  4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
  5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
  6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
  7. selenium, Se (35 mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
  8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

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