Insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases in the population.
This study found convincing evidence for combining order of placement in a buffet and separating the fruits and vegetables, as a means to increase the quantity of self-served fruit and vegetables and decrease consumption of other meal components among male university students.
This study demonstrated that a nudge design consisting of changing the placement of F&V to the beginning of the serving sequence, and presenting the F&V components in separated bowls increases the self-served quantity of F&V and simultaneously decreased the quantity of non-F&V components in the intervention group and total energy intake.
Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins:
- Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, 4 carotenoids)
- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
- Vitamin D (D3 - Cholecalciferol, D2 - Ergocalciferol)
- Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)
- Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
- Vitamin B3 (niacin)
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
- Vitamin B7 (biotin)
- Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
- Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue: vitamins A, D, E, K.
Water-soluble vitamins - the body must use almost all water-soluble vitamins right away - vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and C.
Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.