All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Many of us rely on media that publish scientific research to adjust our nutrition. Here is something to remember, when evaluating it.

Spotting Bad Science by a chemistry teacher from UK, Andy Brunning - 12 points to help you separate the science from the pseudoscience:
1. SENSATIONALISED HEADLINES
2. MISINTERPRETED RESULTS
3. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
4. CORRELATION & CAUSATION
5. UNSUPPORTED CONCLUSIONS
6. PROBLEMS WITH SAMPLE SIZE
7. UNREPRESENTATIVE SAMPLES USED
8. NO CONTROL GROUP USED
9. NO BLIND TESTING USED
10. SELECTIVE REPORTING OF DATA
11. UNREPLICABLE RESULTS
12. NON-PEER REVIEWED MATERIAL

Spotting Bad Science
Spotting Bad Science

Dalai Lama

Life is as dear to a mute creature as it is to a man. Just as one wants happiness and fears pain, just as one wants to live and not to die, so do other creatures.

Food Energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals derive from their food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles.

Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids, polyols, and ethanol present in the diet. Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol, and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. 

Using the International System of Units, researchers measure energy in joules (J) or in its multiples; the kilojoule (kJ) is most often used for food-related quantities. An older metric system unit of energy, still widely used in food-related contexts, is the "food calorie" or kilocalorie (kcal or Cal), equal to 4.184 kilojoules. 

<>Fats and ethanol have the greatest amount of food energy per mass, 37 and 29 kJ/g (8.8 and 6.9 kcal/g), respectively. Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g (4.1 kcal/g). 

Conventional food energy is based on heats of combustion in a bomb calorimeter and corrections that take into consideration the efficiency of digestion and absorption and the production of urine. 

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