All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

  1. the total caloric content of the meals,
  2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

Macronutrients:

The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

  • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
  • Carbohydrates and fats5-15 %.

Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

Insulin

Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

Exercise

The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

  • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
  • and by anaerobic weight training.

"Negative"  Caloric Balance

Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

George Berkeley

To be is to be perceived.

Water

Water is an essential nutrient - it is required in amounts that exceed the body's ability to produce it. All biochemical reactions occur in water. It fills the spaces in and between cells and helps form structures of large molecules such as protein and glycogen. 

Most foods contain water. The body can usually get 20% of its total water requirements from solid foods alone. The human body can last weeks without food, but only days without water. 

The digestion process also produces water as a byproduct and can provide around 10 per cent of the body’s water requirements.  

Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 97% of the planet's crust water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps. Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes.

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. ~One billion people still lack access to safe water. It was estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability, and by 2030 water demand in some developing regions of the world will exceed supply by 50%.

Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. 

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