All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Lena's Fruitarian Life

Lena's Life. See Lena - Life (blog, vlog).

  • Swimming in Outdoor Pool

    Swimming in Outdoor Pool

    This September I swam more in a pool then in the ocean! Having a month-ticket to a nice neighboring pool makes it easier, and there was too much seaweed along the coast this year after the first hot weeks of Fall. 

    In the pool I used to make around 60 short lengths (25

    ...
  • First Swim in a University Pool

    First Swim in a University Pool

    This Summer I was swimming in the ocean as usual, and also in a bay a few times, but today I went to a University pool (UCSD) not far from here.

    Wow, that was so great: I could concentrate on swimming itself, rhythm and pleasure of

    ...
  • Tired and Happy - 20 Years Vegetarian

    On this gray Sunday, April 14 2013, I like to celebrate my 20-year strict high fruit vegetarianism. I switched some time in the beginning of March 1993 (do not remember the exact date, my notebooks were destroyed), but by now, on  it must be well over 20 years.

  • Routs for Swimming in Pacific Ocean

    Wetsuit, for swimming

    I like to swim in open waters. In Europe I did it mostly in seas or lakes, and here in California I risk to go into the Ocean. 

    My 10-years older cousin and his friend had thrown me into deeper waters in a warm see the Summer I just turned 5, I made it back and loved swimming ever

    ...
  • Swimming in the Pacific Ocean 3.5K

    Swimming in the Pacific Ocean 3.5K

    Today I did one of my longest swims in open waters: over 3.5 km (3.5K), not counting curves, waves, zigzag swimming to avoid kelp, kayakers, fishermen, birds, and even one big seal.

    This is my 3rd consecutive day swimming in the ocean,

    ...

Leo Tolstoy

A man can live and be healthy without killing animals for food; therefore, if he eats meat, he participates in taking animal life merely for the sake of his appetite. And to act so is immoral. 

Protein Structure, Cooked and Denatured Proteins

Proteins are chains of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids in a chain is known as the primary structure of a protein. The chains fold up to form complex three dimensional shapes. The chains can fold on themselves locally (secondary structure) and wrap around themselves to form a specific three dimensional shape (tertiary structure).

The secondary / tertiary structure of a folded protein is directly related to its function. For example, enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions. They have binding sites that interact with other molecules. These binding sites are created through the folding of the amino acid chains that gives rise to the three dimensional shape of the enzyme.

Denatured Protein

Denaturation of proteins involves the disruption and possible destruction of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Since denaturation reactions are not strong enough to break the peptide bonds, the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) remains the same after a denaturation process. Denaturation disrupts the normal sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape.

Denaturation occurs because the bonding interactions responsible for the secondary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are disrupted. In tertiary structure there are four types of bonding interactions between "side chains" including: hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, disulfide bonds, and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. which may be disrupted. 

Proteins can be denatured through exposure to heat or chemicals. Denatured proteins lose their three dimensional structure and thus their function. 

Digestion of Proteins and Cooking

Protein digestion begins in the stomach, where the acidic environment favors protein denaturation. Denatured proteins are more accessible as substrates for proteolysis than are native proteins. The primary proteolytic enzyme of the stomach is pepsin, a nonspecific protease that is maximally active at pH 2. Thus, pepsin can be active in the highly acidic environment of the stomach, even though other proteins undergo denaturation there.

Heat disrupts hydrogen bonds and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. This occurs because heat increases the kinetic energy and causes the molecules to vibrate so rapidly and violently that the bonds are disrupted

Foods are cooked to denature the proteins to make it easier for enzymes to digest them. Cooking food denatures some of the proteins in it and makes digestion more efficient. Heating to denature proteins in bacteria and thus destroy the bacteria.

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