Inorganic Synthetic

Inorganic Synthetic Pigments

Ultramarine was the most important addition to the standard earth palette, in my opinion.

Impressionist Palette

Impressionists added other inorganic minerals in addition to natural ones, lapis, and naples in classic palette:

  • red and yellow cadmiums and turquoise,
  • blue and violet cobalts,
  • green chromium oxide and viridian,
  • and manganese violet.


New pigments with excellent lightfastness like mars black were synthesized in modern times.

Notable Inorganic Pigments

These pigments below are those I used in my artwork, due to their beauty and permanence:

  • Aluminum pigments:
    • Ultramarine violet (PV15),
    • Ultramarine blue or french (PB29): a synthetic or naturally occurring sulfur containing silicate mineral, Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4.
  • Cobalt pigments:
    • Cobalt violet: (PV14),
    • Cobalt blue (PB28),
    • Cerulean blue and turquose (PB35, PB36).
  • Manganese pigment:
    • Manganese violet: (PV16) manganic ammonium pyrophosphate[2], NH4MnP2O7.
  • Iron pigments:
    • Prussian blue (PB27): a synthetic inert pigment made of iron and cyanide, C18Fe7N18,
    • Mars black or iron black (PBk11): synthetic magnetite, Fe3O4.
  • Cadmium pigments:
    • Cadmium yellow (PY37): cadmium sulfide, CdS,  occurs as mineral greenockite,
    • Cadmium red (PR108): cadmium sulfo-selenide, Cd2SSe.
  • Chromium pigments:
    • Chrome green (PG17): anhydrous chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3,
    • Viridian (PG18): hydrated chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3•xH2O.
  • Copper pigment:
    • Malachite.
  • Lead pigment:
    • Naples yellow (PY41).
  • Titanium pigment:
    • Titanium white (PW6): titanium(IV) oxide, TiO2.
  • Zinc Pigment:
    • Zinc white (PW4): zinc oxide, ZnO.

The most important to my palette synthesized inorganic pigments from those listed below I will describe separately under this label.


Lena Nechet, artist - Fine art, media productions, language.
San Diego, California , USA , 323-686-1771