Mineral Earth Pigments
Permanent natural minerals do not fade or change.
Inorganic black carbons and earth mineral iron oxides are permanent and were used since the beginning of art.
I often use hematite, venetian and indian red, siennas an umbers, ochre, iron oxides, and sometimes goethite and caput mortuum.
Some permanent iron oxides were used in the classical palette, with added also inorganic naples and ultramarine:
- venetian and indian red,
- orange and yellow raw and burnt sienna,
- yellow ochre,
- brown raw and burnt umber,
- naples yellow,
- ultramarine blue and violet (lapis).