Color 🌈

Color is the characteristic of human visual perception, which derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum, as a result of the way the object reflects or emits light.

Science of color - chromatics or colorimetry - studies the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of light.

  • Hue 🟡

    Color Hue

    Unique hue is the degree to which color can be described in a common language as a specific color, like  fuchsia (magenta), red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and the way to distinguish one color group from another.

    • Cool 🔵

      Cool colors: greens, cyans, blues.

      • Blue

        Blue Indigo Navy Royal Slate Purple

      • Cyan

        Cyan Turquoise Teal Aqua Sky Azure

    • Warm 🟠

      Warm colors: magentas, reds, yellows.

      • Magenta

        Fuchsia Pink Plum Violet

        Magentais a purplish-red or reddish-purple color. In these group of colors I include all colors close to it on the color wheel, for instance: crimson, pink, purple, red violet,...

        On RGB (additive) and CMY (subtractive) color wheels, it is located in the middle between red and blue:

        • Hex #f0f or #FF00FF;
        • sRGBB  (r, g, b)=(255, 0, 255) - red, green, blue.
        • CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)=(0, 100, 0, 0) - cyan, magenta, yellow, black;
        • HSV(h, s, v)=(300°, 100%, 100%) - hue, saturation, value.

        Magenta is an extra-spectral color, not a hue associated with monochromatic visible light - it is associated with perception of spectral power distributions. Violet and red, the two components of magenta, are at opposite ends of the visible spectrum and have very different wavelengths (380 to 740 nm). Magenta has no wavelength attributed to it. Our brain constructs magenta to connect the ends of the spectrum, red and violet.

        In the CMYK color model, magenta is one of the three primary colors, along with cyan and yellow. In this model, magenta is also the complementary color of green: these two colors have the highest contrast. If combined, green and magenta ink will look dark gray or black. Process magenta is one of the four colors of ink used in color printing by an inkjet printer. Combining green and magenta light on a black screen will create white. A purple hue in terms of color theory, magenta is evoked by light having less power in green wavelengths than in blue/violet and red wavelengths.

      • Red

        Maroon Red Scarlet

        Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. In these group I also include colors like scarlet and vermillion.

        Its dominant wavelength of approximately 625–740 nanometers. It is a primary color in the RGB and CMYK color models, and is the complementary color of cyan.

        Red has historically been associated with danger and courage, but in modern Europe and US red is commonly associated with heat, activity, passion, sexuality, anger, love, and joy. In many Asian countries red symbolizes happiness and good fortune.

      • Yellow

        Yellow Umber Ochre Gold Lemon Orange Sienna Amber Peach

  • Saturation ✨

    Color Chroma

    Saturation (chroma, intensity) - resembles making tints by adding white.

    Saturated Red


    Chroma expresses the purity of a color, its saturation with the main hue, its brilliance and intensity, or how much other hues are mixed into the color.

    I group all my images by saturation:

    • Bright: more vivid and saturated colors with pure bright hues.
    • Subtle: more pastel or earthy, less bright, desaturated colors that have more other hues mixed in, especially if muted by a complimentary hue.
    • Colorful: multiple saturated colors used, often with a range of chromatically intense colors.
    • Bright

      More vivid and saturated colors with pure bright hues.

    • Colorful

      Various colors are used in one "colorful" image in chromatic combinations and designs.Colorful images differentiated by the color palette used. Chromatic pictures mage with hues likemagenta, red, yellow, green, cyan, blue - in combination.

    • Limited Palette

      Limited palette - deliberate restriction of the number of color hues or single pigments to use in a picture.

    • Subtle

      More pastel or earthy, less bright, desaturated colors that have more other hues mixed in, especially if muted by a complimentary hue.

  • Value 🔲


    Value ( in HSV model - darkness, or Lightness in HSL model, or Brightness in HSB model) - resembles making tints by adding black or gray.

    The value of color is defined by its lightness or darkness, its tints and shades, quantity of light reflected, or how close it is to white or black.

    Value in art is about relative lightnessor darknessof colors that is used to create spatial illusions.

    • Dark: low key, with prevalent darker values.
    • Light: high key, with prevalent lighter values.
    • Achromatic: gray-scale, black and white.
    • Black & White 🔳



      Black on White

      Bland and white imaging give use the freedom from color hues, and bring up value of line and visual texture. Compositions that created using only black on white ground are exciting because of the challenge they bring, and due to liberating discoveries of obvious restrain.

      I work in hue-monochrome almost exclusively in sketch and uderpainting, and never yet had a monochromatic finished piece, except black on white. And even then, I avoid any shades of gray created with black, instead I use complementary hues in colorful works and textured layering in black.

      As for white on black, I dislike the loss of the reflected pure white from the background through the transparent layers, and rarely use this technique.


      Pure value, no color hue or saturation is presented in black and white images (B/W or B&W), black-n-white artwork and graphics, monochrome pictures that use only grayscale achromatic colors. Black-and-white images can combine black and white in a continuous spectrum, producing a range of shades of gray, and represent valueonly.


      A black and white picture is a monochrome that represents achromatic scales (gray scale) only - black, gray or white colorsA monochromic image in general is composed of values of any one color, not only black. Monochromatic pictures have colors in shades and tints of a single hue.

    • High Key Light ⚪

      Light-valued high-key images with prevalent lighter tones consists primarily of tinted to bright colors, with fewer dark shadows.



    • Low Key Dark ⚫

      Darker-value low-key depictions with prevalent darker tones can sometimes have dominant blacks, blues, and browns.



Black Shade January 2016
Black to White May 2015
Color Theory January 2016
Color Theory February 2020
Colors November 2016
Complementary Colors January 2016
Phytochemicals, Colors, Antioxidants October 2016
Style of Presenting May 2021
White Tint January 2016
⚜️ Fine Art May 2015