The terms analysis ("to take apart" - to break down an intellectual or substantial whole into parts) and synthesis ("to put together" - to combine separate elements or components in order to form a coherent whole) are similar procedures.
Analytical writing - relationships of ideas or parts, possible situations, alternative responses, systemic analysis, comparison.
System analysis - a problem-solving technique that analyses components of a system to see how well they interact to accomplish the purpose, also:
"The process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way".
Reason is a consideration that explains or justifies events, phenomena, or behavior. It is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, justifying or adapting practices and beliefs based on existing or new information.
Reasoning is understanding and forming judgments, the way rational individuals understand sensory information from their environments and conceptualize abstractions. Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical and intuitive.
Intuition, the ability to acquire knowledge without conscious reasoning, is often necessary for the creative processes involved with arriving at a formal proof.
Logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.
Deduction is a form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises. Deductive reasoning - deductive or "top-down" logic - is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion, by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range until only the conclusion is left. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true.
Induction is a form of inference (arriving at a conclusion with some degree of probability), based on previous observations or experiences, or formulating general statements based on limited observations of patterns. In inductive reasoning - "bottom-up" logic - the premises supply some evidence for the probable truth of the conclusion, and the truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion. This conclusion of an inductive argument contains more information than is already contained in the premises.
Analogical reasoning, from a particular to a particular, is a weaker form of inductive reasoning from a single example.
Abductive reasoning, or argument to the best explanation (favoring one conclusion above others), starts with incomplete set of observations and proceeds with likely possible explanations. The conclusion does not follow with certainty from its premises and concerns something unobserved. Fallacy,
Flawed reasoning in arguments is known as fallacious reasoning that commits formal or informal fallacies.
A formal fallacy occur when there is a problem with the form of the argument. Such argument is always invalid.
In informal fallacy, the error in reasoning is due to a problem with the content of the argument.