Science & Technology

Science - systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, a system of knowledge of general laws obtained through scientific method, which provides testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Technology - the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.


Formal Sciences

The formal sciences are concerned with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules: mathematics, logic, statistics, systems theory, decision theory, game theory, theoretical linguistics, information theory, theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence.

  1. Mathematics, a synonym of formal science:
    • arithmetic - the study of quantity,
    • algebra - the study of structure,
    • geometry - the study of space, 
    • analysis - the study of change;
  2. Logic, the study of the relations that lead to the acceptance of the conclusion on the basis of premises, the analysis and appraisal of arguments.
    • classification of arguments,
    • validity of deductive and inductive reasoning,
    • formal proofs and inference,
    • paradoxes and fallacies,
    • syntax and semantics;
  3. Statistics, the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data.
  4. Systems theory, the study of systems in general, specifically of self-regulating systems that are self-correcting through feedback.
  5. Decision theory, the theory of choice, the study of an agent's choices.
    1. normative decision theory determines the optimal decisions given constraints and assumptions,
    2. descriptive decision theory analyzes how agents make the decisions.
  6. Game theory, the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among rational agents, the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.
  7. Theoretical linguistics, the theory of language, the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language.
  8. Information theory, the scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication of digital information, the field at the intersection of probability theory, statistics, computer science, statistical mechanics, information engineering, and electrical engineering.
    A key measure in information theory is entropy. Entropy quantifies the amount of uncertainty involved in the value of a random variable or the outcome of a random process.
  9. Theoretical computer science, focuses on mathematical topics of computing, and includes the theory of computation.
  10.  Artificial intelligence, the study of systems that perceive their environment and take actions that maximize their chances of achieving their goals.

Natural Science

Physical Sciences

  1. Physics, the general analysis of nature, a study of matter and its motion through spacetime.
  2. Chemistry, the science of matter and its changes, concerned with its composition, reactions, structure, and properties, that studies substances, atoms, molecules.
    Geoscience, the planetary science of the Earth.
  3. Geology, the science of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed.
  4. Oceanography, the marine science that studies the ocean.
  5. Meteorology, the study of the atmosphere.
  6. Astronomy, is the study of outer space.

Life Science - Biology

Biology studies life, organisms, their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development, and evolution.
Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

  1. Biochemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
  2. Microbiology, the study of microorganisms:
    1. unicellular (single cell),
    2. multicellular (cell colony),
    3. acellular (lacking cells).
  3. Botany, phytology, the science of plants.
  4. Zoology, studies animals.
  5. Ecology, studies interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment.

Social Sciences

Social science studies societies and the relationships among individuals: sociology, anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, political science, psychology.

Applied Science

Applied sciences use existing scientific knowledge for practical goals.

  • Actuarial science—applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance, finance, and other industries;
  • Agricultural science;
    • Agronomy – producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation;
    • Agriculture – science of farming;
    • Food science – technical aspects of foods;
    • Forestry – managing forests and tree plantations;
    • Horticulture – intensive plant cultivation;
    • Permaculture – ecological design and ecological engineering for developing sustainable human settlements and self-maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.
  • Architecture – planning, designing and construction buildings or other structures.
  • Computing technologycomputer hardware and software, and computing methods.
  • Education – any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual, the process by which society transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another.
  • Electronics – electrical circuits that involve active electrical components.
  • Energy technology  – extraction, conversion, transportation, storage, and use of energy.
  • Engineering  –designing and building structures, machines, devices, systems, materials, and processes.
  • Environmental science – study of the environment.
  • Forensic science – answer questions for legal system.
  • Health science – delivery of healthcare, medicine.
  • Applied linguistics – solutions to language-related problems.
  • Management – getting people together to accomplish desired goals, using available resources efficiently and effectively (accounting, finance, marketing, operations, etc.).
  • Applied mathematics – mathematical methods that are used in business, and industry.
  • Microtechnology – production and manipulation of structures with one-micrometre magnitude (one millionth of a metre, 1μm).
  • Military sciencewar and armed conflict.
  • Applied physics – physics intended for a particular technological or practical use.
  • Space Science space exploration and natural phenomena in outer space.
  • Spatial science – surveying, geographic information systems, hydrography, and cartography.
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