All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. Failing to sufficiently wash one’s hands contributes to ~ 50% of all foodborne illness outbreaks. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23%. Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8%. The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone.

  • Only 5% of people who used the bathroom washed their hands long enough to kill the germs that can cause infections (for only 6 seconds on average),
  • 33% did not use soap,
  • 10% did not wash their hands at all,
  • 50% of men used soap, compared with 78% of women.
Washing hands under running water:
  1. Wet your hands with clean water, warm or cold, apply soap.
  2. Lather your hands by rubbing them together. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
  3. Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds
  4. Rinse your hands well.
  5. Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them.
When to wash hands: 
  • Before, during, and after preparing food.
  • Before eating food.
  • After using the toilet.
  • After touching garbage.
  • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
  • Before and after caring for someone who is sick.
  • Before and after treating a cut or wound.
  • After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet.
  • After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste.
  • After handling pet food or pet treats.

Jeremy Bentham

The question is not, "Can they reason?" nor, "Can they talk?" but "Can they suffer?” 

Vitamin A

Retinoids retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid - 3 active forms of vitamin A - "preformed" vitamin A.

Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A by the human body. 

Large amounts of supplemental vitamin A (but not beta carotene) can be harmful to bones.

Vitamin A keeps tissues and skin healthy, plays an important role in bone growth. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts. Essential for vision lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk.

Recommended daily amount: 700 mcg - 900 mcg or 3 mg - 6 mg beta-carotene (~ 1 cup of raw cantaloupe or sweet red peppers, or 2 mangoes, or 1/5 of one baked sweet potato). 

Because the body converts all dietary sources of vitamin A into retinol, 1 mcg of physiologically available retinol is equivalent to the following amounts from dietary sources: 1 mcg of retinol, 12 mcg of beta-carotene, and 24 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. From dietary supplements, the body converts 2 mcg of beta-carotene to 1 mcg of retinol.

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