The genus Salvia (commonly, sage) is the largest member of Lamiacea (mint) family with over 900 species. The plants are mostly aromatic, perennials with flowers in different colors. Many species of Salvia, including Salvia officinalis (common sage), are native to the Mediterranean region.
Sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc.
Several studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer.
Sage tea has been traditionally used for the treatment of digestive and circulation disturbances, bronchitis, cough, asthma, angina, mouth and throat inflammations, depression, excessive sweating, skin diseases, and many other diseases.
Salvia apiana, commonly known as white sage or bee sage, is an aromatic evergreen subshrub found in coastal plains in California and Baja California. It has been traditionally used by the Chumash people as a ritual and medicinal plant and used as a calmative, a diuretic, and a remedy for the common cold.
Phytochemical studies on Salvia apiana revealed the presence of substantial amounts of essential oil, accompanied by a variety of triterpenes, C23 terpenoids, diterpenes, and flavonoids.
Extracts of the plant have been shown to exhibit antioxidative, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects. The influence of white sage constituents on the nervous system, including GABA, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors, has also been documented.