Science & Technology

Science - systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, a system of knowledge of general laws obtained through scientific method, which provides testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Technology - the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.


Formal Sciences

The formal sciences are concerned with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules: mathematics, logic, statistics, systems theory, decision theory, game theory, theoretical linguistics, information theory, theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence.

  1. Mathematics, a synonym of formal science:
    • arithmetic - the study of quantity,
    • algebra - the study of structure,
    • geometry - the study of space, 
    • analysis - the study of change;
  2. Logic, the study of the relations that lead to the acceptance of the conclusion on the basis of premises, the analysis and appraisal of arguments.
    • classification of arguments,
    • validity of deductive and inductive reasoning,
    • formal proofs and inference,
    • paradoxes and fallacies,
    • syntax and semantics;
  3. Statistics, the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data.
  4. Systems theory, the study of systems in general, specifically of self-regulating systems that are self-correcting through feedback.
  5. Decision theory, the theory of choice, the study of an agent's choices.
    1. normative decision theory determines the optimal decisions given constraints and assumptions,
    2. descriptive decision theory analyzes how agents make the decisions.
  6. Game theory, the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among rational agents, the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.
  7. Theoretical linguistics, the theory of language, the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language.
  8. Information theory, the scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication of digital information, the field at the intersection of probability theory, statistics, computer science, statistical mechanics, information engineering, and electrical engineering.
    A key measure in information theory is entropy. Entropy quantifies the amount of uncertainty involved in the value of a random variable or the outcome of a random process.
  9. Theoretical computer science, focuses on mathematical topics of computing, and includes the theory of computation.
  10.  Artificial intelligence, the study of systems that perceive their environment and take actions that maximize their chances of achieving their goals.

Natural Science

Physical Sciences

  1. Physics, the general analysis of nature, a study of matter and its motion through spacetime.
  2. Chemistry, the science of matter and its changes, concerned with its composition, reactions, structure, and properties, that studies substances, atoms, molecules.
    Geoscience, the planetary science of the Earth.
  3. Geology, the science of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed.
  4. Oceanography, the marine science that studies the ocean.
  5. Meteorology, the study of the atmosphere.
  6. Astronomy, is the study of outer space.

Life Science - Biology

Biology studies life, organisms, their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development, and evolution.
Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

  1. Biochemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
  2. Microbiology, the study of microorganisms:
    1. unicellular (single cell),
    2. multicellular (cell colony),
    3. acellular (lacking cells).
  3. Botany, phytology, the science of plants.
  4. Zoology, studies animals.
  5. Ecology, studies interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment.

Social Sciences

Social science studies societies and the relationships among individuals: sociology, anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, political science, psychology.

Applied Science

Applied sciences use existing scientific knowledge for practical goals.

  • Actuarial science—applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance, finance, and other industries;
  • Agricultural science;
    • Agronomy – producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation;
    • Agriculture – science of farming;
    • Food science – technical aspects of foods;
    • Forestry – managing forests and tree plantations;
    • Horticulture – intensive plant cultivation;
    • Permaculture – ecological design and ecological engineering for developing sustainable human settlements and self-maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.
  • Architecture – planning, designing and construction buildings or other structures.
  • Computing technologycomputer hardware and software, and computing methods.
  • Education – any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual, the process by which society transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another.
  • Electronics – electrical circuits that involve active electrical components.
  • Energy technology  – extraction, conversion, transportation, storage, and use of energy.
  • Engineering  –designing and building structures, machines, devices, systems, materials, and processes.
  • Environmental science – study of the environment.
  • Forensic science – answer questions for legal system.
  • Health science – delivery of healthcare, medicine.
  • Applied linguistics – solutions to language-related problems.
  • Management – getting people together to accomplish desired goals, using available resources efficiently and effectively (accounting, finance, marketing, operations, etc.).
  • Applied mathematics – mathematical methods that are used in business, and industry.
  • Microtechnology – production and manipulation of structures with one-micrometre magnitude (one millionth of a metre, 1μm).
  • Military sciencewar and armed conflict.
  • Applied physics – physics intended for a particular technological or practical use.
  • Space Science space exploration and natural phenomena in outer space.
  • Spatial science – surveying, geographic information systems, hydrography, and cartography.
Title Created Date
Richard Feynman - Science March 2024
Richard Feynman - Depth March 2024
Richard Feynman - Imagination March 2024
Jared Diamond - Invention March 2024
Jared Diamond - Technology March 2024
Fresh Fruit and Microbiom Nutrient Production November 2023
Artwork Creation as Behavior November 2022
DNA, Proteins, Neurons, and Hormones September 2022
Sapolsky 2002 - What Females Want September 2022
Wong 2014 - Rise of the Human Predator September 2022
Hrdy 2009 - Meet the Alloparents September 2022
Carmichael 2007 - A Changing Portrait of DNA September 2022
Bhattacharya 2011 - The Children Who Grow Old September 2022
Raloff 2005 - Still Hungry August 2022
What is a Hormone August 2022
Moyer 2011 - Obsessions Revisited August 2022
Gregory Bateson - Technology January 2022
Sydney Brenner - Perfect June 2021
Enable Spell-Check Inline in Firefox January 2020
Custom Built Editing Computer January 2020
Business Calendar App March 2019
NASA February 2018
Nano January 2018
Scientists and Philosophers to Research Fruitarianism December 2017
Niels Bohr - Poetry November 2017
Thomas Paine - Error November 2017
Young People Feel Better Being Given Fresh Fruits February 2017
Fruit for Lower Blood Pressure and Glucose Levels November 2016
Declaration on Consciousness November 2016
Fruits and Vegetables against Specific Cancer Types October 2016
Fruits and Vegetables for Cancer Prevention October 2016
Protection with Vegetarian and Vegan Diets October 2016
High-Fat Meals May Be Protrombotic October 2016
Fruits Reduce Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancers October 2016
Vitamin C in Muscles October 2016
Vitamin C Benefits Debate October 2016
Vitamin C and Common Cold October 2016
Fruit and Diabetes Type 2 October 2016
Carnitine and Microflora October 2016
Dietary Reference Intake DRI October 2016
Blue Iridescent Fruits without Pigment October 2016
Plants can Learn and Make Decisions October 2016
Fluoride in Water and Dental or Skeletal Fluorosis October 2016
Microflora Differences in European and African Village Children October 2016
Enterotypes and Microflora October 2016
Studies on Safety of GMO Foods October 2016
Vitamin D Supplement and Calcium Long Term October 2016
10000 Times More Natural Pesticides - No Dirty Dozen October 2016
Cobalamin Deficiency in Asian Indians October 2016
Serum Vitamin B12 in Children October 2016

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Lena Nechet, artist - Fine art, media productions, language.
San Diego, California , USA, 323-686-1771

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